Introduction Of Computer | Computer Fundamentals

Fundamental of computer

Fundamentals of computers refer to the basic principles and concepts that form the foundation of computer science. These principles and concepts include:

1. Hardware: The physical components of a computer, including the central processing unit (CPU), memory, storage devices, input/output devices, and peripherals.

2. Software: Programs and instructions that control and manage the hardware components of a computer, including operating systems, applications, and utilities.
3. Operating systems: The software that controls the overall operation of a computer system, manages resources such as memory and processing power, and provides a platform for other software applications to run.

4. Data and Information: The digital information that computers process and manipulate, including text, numbers, images, and multimedia.

5. Networks and the Internet: The technology that connects computers and allows them to communicate and share information with each other, including the internet, local area networks (LANs), and wide area networks (WANs).

6. Programming: The process of designing, writing, testing, and debugging computer programs, using programming languages such as Java, C++, Python, and others.
Understanding these fundamental principles and concepts is essential for anyone who wants to learn about computer science and work in the field of computing.

Definition Of Computer 

A computer is an electronic device that manipulates information or data. It has the ability to store, retrieve, and process data. 

A Computer has several components like Keyboard, Mouse, Processor, Memory, Monitor and printer etc. Computer requires instructions to perform a particular task. Hardware and Software are the two terms we frequently use with reference to Computer.

Nowadays Computer is not only limited to computation, but also used for making phone calls, maintaining databases, listening songs, viewing movies etc. so a more formal definition of Computer is required.

You may already know that you can use a computer to type documents, send an email, play games, and browse the Web. You can also use it to edit or create spreadsheets, presentations, and even videos.

Input : The data is entered using an input device such as a Keyboard or a Mouse. Data which is the raw facts that the user enters into the computer is called input. This includes; words, numbers, sound and pictures. When the data is entered into the computer.

Processing Unit: The computer processes the data according to a set of instructions called Program.

Output :  The computer returns the processed information in the form of output that can either be printed or displayed on the output devices like Printer or Monitor.

Memory: The computer saves the data and the instructions in the memory for further retrieval.

Types of Computers are usually categorized as:
1.Supercomputer - The fastest, largest, most powerful and most expensive computer.

2 Mainframe Computer -This is little smaller and less powerful than the supercomputer
but, like the supercomputer it is also expensive.

3.Personal Computer (PC) - This is the computer that most people use in their daily


Processer: It is called as the heart or computer commonly known as CPU which stands for (central processing unit).

RAM: It is used to temporarily store data with immediate effect.

Computer Motherboard: Mother board (Main board) it is a piece of PCB (printed circuit board) where all the other components and devices are attached to it .

Power supply:
SMPS (Switching Mode Power Supply) gives the necessary power to motherboard and later the power is distributed to all the parts of computer.

Monitors: They are used to display information given to them

The Basic components & parts of computer system are:

1. Input Devices
2. Output Devices
3. CPU (Central Processing Unit)
4. Storage Unit
5. ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)
6. Control Unit

Operating System

An operating system is commonly abbreviated as OS. The operating system is also called system software or system program which directly interacts with computer hardware.

Windows Operating System

Windows OS, computer operating system (OS) was developed by Microsoft Corporation to run personal computers (PCs). Featuring the first graphical user interface, the Windows OS soon dominated the PC market. Approximately 90% of PCs run some version of Windows.

The first version of Windows, released in 1985, was simply a GUI offered as an extension of Microsoft's existing disk operating system, or MS-DOS.

History of The Computer

One of the most important developments leading to the personal computer revolution was the invention of the semiconductor or transistor in 1948.

Generations of Computers

Computer Generations First Generation

(1942-55) - Used vacuum tubes.
1. Speed in Millie-seconds
2. Very large size.
3. Consumed lot of power
4. Generated tremendous heat
5. Poor reliability due to vacuum tubes
6. Used only machine language and assembly language

Second Generation (1955-64)

1. Used transistors
2. Speed in micro-seconds
3. Relatively small size
4. Consumed considerably less power
5. Generated lesser heat as vacuum tubes were not used
6. Better reliability than first generation computers
7. Used magnetic core as a storage device
8. Used assembly language and high level languages (FORTRAN, COBOL etc.)

Third Generation (1965-74)

1. Used integrated circuits
2. Speed in nano-seconds
3. Further reduced size
4. Reduced power consumption and higher reliability due to the use of integrated circuits
5. Generated lesser heat
6. Used concept of cache memories
7. Time-sharing and on-line computation possible
8. Used improved high level languages

Fourth Generation (1975 onwards)

1. Using large scale integration
2. higher density chips - Speed in nano-seconds
3. Introduction of microcomputers and microprocessors

Fifth Generation (currently going on)

1. Research is being done in Japan, USA and other countries.
2. Ability to communicate with spoken words.
3. Graphic and image recognition
4. Emulation of human sense organs of speech, sight and sound
5. Ability to find solutions of problems using databases and information already stored in computer memory.
6. Ability to take away the burden of programming from human beings (i.e. computers to program themselves).