Introduction Of Computer | Computer Fundamentals

A computer is an electronic device that manipulates information or data. It has the ability to store, retrieve, and process data. You may already know that you can use a computer to type documents, send an email, play games, and browse the Web. You can also use it to edit or create spreadsheets, presentations, and even videos.


Data which is the raw facts that the user enters into the computer is called input. This

includes; words, numbers, sound and pictures. When the data is entered into the computer.


the computer processes the data to produce information which is called as the output.

Computers are usually categorized as:

1.Supercomputer - The fastest, largest, most powerful and most expensive computer.

2 Mainframe Computer -This is little smaller and less powerful than the supercomputer

but, like the supercomputer it is also expensive.

3.Personal Computer (PC) - This is the computer that most people use in their daily


Processer: It is called as the heart or computer commonly known as CPU which stands for (central processing unit).

RAM: It is used to temporarily store data with immediate effect.

Computer Motherboard: Mother board (Main board) it is a piece of PCB (printed circuit board) where all the other components and devices are attached to it .

Power supply: SMPS (Switching Mode Power Supply) gives the necessary power to motherboard and later the power is distributed to all the parts of computer.

Input Devices: Keyboard and mouse are well known examples of input device. Through this users can easily enter data in the form of instruction or programs.

Output Device: Printers are widely used for printing of any data which is entered using input devices such as keyboard and mouse.

Monitors: They are used to display information given to them

The Basic components & parts of computer system are:

1. Input Devices

2. Output Devices

3. CPU (Central Processing Unit)

4. Storage Unit

5. ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)

6. Control Unit

Operating System

An operating system is commonly abbreviated as OS. The operating system is also called system software or system program which directly interacts with computer hardware.

Windows Operating System

Windows OS, computer operating system (OS) was developed by Microsoft Corporation to run personal computers (PCs). Featuring the first graphical user interface,  the Windows OS soon dominated the PC market. Approximately 90% of PCs run some version of Windows.

The first version of Windows, released in 1985, was simply a GUI offered as an extension of Microsoft's existing disk operating system, or MS-DOS. 

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